Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) - German-French philosopher, doctor, thinker, creator of The Ethics of Reverence for Life. Schweitzer put forward an important ethical postulate: “I am life that wants to live, in the midst of life that wants to live.” According to Albert Schweitzer, every life is sacred: “Ethics is in its unqualified form extended responsibility to everything that has life”.
Aldo Leopold (1887-1948) - an outstanding American ecologist and philosopher, the "father" of environmental ethics, which he called land ethic, the founder of ecocentrism, author of A Sand County Almanac, in which deep thoughts, made more than five decades ago, about nature, about objectives of careful attitude towards nature by a man, find today their relevance. According to his land ethic we should not destruct or contribute to the extinction of species; lightly to mix native and exotic species, produce excessive energy from the soil and release it at home; damming or pollute the river, but should certainly take care of the animals.
Biocentrism - the direction in environmental ethics that puts the interests of life above all. Biocentrism is based on an awareness of the value of every living being and acceptance of the concept of rights of nature. Life is considered to be the main criterion of value. Biocentrism claims that a man is only a part of nature, and all other living beings - his moral equal partners. Interests and values of individual beings according biocentrism рфму priority in protection than the interests of species and ecosystems. Biocentrism asserts that a person must have a moral duty to all living beings on the Earth, aim to protect all living beings, animals and plants.
Ecocentrism - the direction in environmental ethics, according which protection of ecosystems with their constituent species of wild animals and plants is more important than protection of individual living beings. Unlike biocentrism, ecocentrism gives priority to the interests of not an individual living being, but the entire community - ecosystem. Ecocentrists consider wild nature to be sacred, to have intrinsic value and moral rights. Therefore ecocentrists support the creation of protected areas where wildlife should be given complete freedom. Ecocentrism supporters are close to the position of complete non-interference in the processes of nature.
The intrinsic value of nature - it is the intrinsic value of nature, regardless of its usefulness to a man. Therefore, the intrinsic value, firstly exists independently from the presence, consciousness, interests and estimation of a man; Secondly - it is the value of natural creation, the purpose of which is its own existence, his own life.